Climate Modification and Volcanoes

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Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

Nintendo’s Draconian Stance Against System Modification

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Nintendo is one of the most creative and innovative video game companies in the world, but their stance against modifications of their products is nothing short of Draconian. In short, Nintendo says there is no legitimate purpose for game copying devices, emulators, and modification (mod) chips or other devices that enable homebrew applications. Sony and Microsoft have similar stances, but are a little more discreet in expressing their disdain for such devices, though no less aggressive in filing lawsuits against large-scale distributors of such devices.

Nintendo’s own legal information FAQ states, “Mod chips circumvent the security embedded into Nintendo’s products. To install the mod chips into a Nintendo hardware system, it is necessary to dismantle the product and, in some instances, remove components.” Nintendo automatically equates using mod chips with circumventing security of NINTENDO’S products. This is an interesting view considering most of us believe that once we buy a product it is now OUR product and not the manufacturer’s. Can you imagine a car manufacturer asserting similar claims? Ford could claim that changing out the computer chip in your car circumvents the security on FORD’S product. However, most of us believe that once you pay for a vehicle it is yours to alter in most any way you choose. Nintendo claims exceptions for video game consoles that few other companies would dare claim. Nintendo claims that even though you bought the product, it still belongs to Nintendo and that altering it, no matter the reason, somehow damages Nintendo. They want the very act of altering the device to be illegal even without proof of criminal use of the modified product.

Just because a game system modification enables illegal activity does not mean it will be used for the purpose. Using the car metaphor from earlier, just because I could modify my Ford vehicle to greatly exceed the speed limit does not mean I will blow through a school zone doing 88 mph. Just because I modify my Nintendo game system does not mean I will use it to illegally copy and/or distribute games.

In almost any area outside of the video games industry, making a modification to your property would not be illegal, even if that modification could enable the performance of an illegal act. Nintendo acknowledges only one use for these devices, and that is the illegal copying and distribution of video games. This view discounts the numerous legitimate uses for modification devices. For instance, many people use their Nintendo handhelds to read classic literature. This requires the use of devices Nintendo claims are only used for piracy.

Making it illegal to modify a product you paid for is absurd. Unfortunately, if Nintendo has its way, you will pay for a device and not legally be allowed to use it for anything for which Nintendo does not approve.

All About The International Banking And Financial Studies Masters At Southampton

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Here is a short summary of the MSc International Banking and Financial Studies masters degree course offered by the Management School at the University of Southampton to help would-be students to decide whether it is the course for them.

This International Banking and Financial Studies masters course aims to develop students’ existing skills through advanced study in the areas of banking and finance, with a particular emphasis on the international context in which these activities occur.

The International Banking and Financial Studies masters programme gives you a coherent theoretical framework for the various subject areas, although the emphasis throughout is on the practical application of financial techniques in the modern financial services environment.

Southampton Management School has an excellent international reputation for the analytical study of management and business. Studying the MSc International Banking and Financial Studies masters programme will introduce you to new concepts and knowledge, which can make all the difference in the job market.

At the Management School, all our degrees are taught by research-active academics who are also directly tackling business challenges outside the seminar room and putting theory into practice every day.

The International Banking and Financial Studies masters degree course is led by Dr. Gerhard Kling, who is a senior lecturer in Finance at the University of Southamptons Management School.

Gerhard received his PhD in Economics from the University of Tuebingen (Germany) and joined Utrecht University (The Netherlands) as Assistant Professor of Finance and Financial Markets (2004-2006).

In 2006, he went into the private sector and worked as Practice Specialist in Corporate Finance & Banking (McKinsey & Company, Germany) (2006-2007). Then he returned into academia and joined Bristol Business School (UWE, UK) as Senior Lecturer in Strategy (2007-2009).

In 2009, Gerhard was promoted to a Principal Lecturer in Strategy and Operations Management (2009-2010). On 1st October 2010 he joined the University of Southampton as a Senior Lecturer in Finance.
Southampton Management School has an excellent international reputation for the analytical study of management and business. Studying an MSc Management masters degree, or other postgraduate option, will introduce you to new concepts and knowledge, which can make all the difference in the job market.
All our degrees are taught by research-active academics who are also directly tackling business challenges outside the seminar room and put theory into practice every day.

To find out more about this International Banking and Financial Studies masters degree go to www.southampton.ac.uk/management

Legal for trade scale- Makes Weight Measurement Easy, Accurate and Transparent

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The phrase, legal for trade scale means, a weighing scale, which is granted the legal permission to be used for commercial operation. Such a scale is used for weight measurement in a manufacturing, retail or trading facility where accuracy in the weight is of paramount importance. The National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM) runs a program called National Type Evaluation Program or NTEP to oversee the enforcement of guidelines laid out in handbook 44 of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

The program ensures that manufacturers, users and officials from the department of weights and measures interact and cooperate with each other, and implement the guidelines of the program so that manufacturer can manufacture and sell the legal for trade scale for commercial purpose, without compromising the quality.

A legal for trade scale ensures fairness and transparency during the commercial weighing operation because it has a -legal for trade- indent marked on it. This mark guarantees accuracy in measurement because the concerned weighing scale is manufactured and tested according to the guidelines of the program. To make the weighing process more transparent, the weighing scale, which does not have a dual display unit, is marked as -not for direct sales-. This latest addition, aims to make it compulsory for all such scales to have a dual display unit instead of a single unit. A dual display unit allows the customer to have a clear and direct view of the weight reading. Hence from now on legal for trade scales, which have a dual display unit, will be used where both end user and customer are present during the weighing operation.

Before a weighing scale is indented with the legal for trade scale mark it has to under go a series of stringent tests. The scale is subject to testing under different environments and all the results are noted. The features advertised by the manufacturer are thoroughly checked. If they conform to the program guidelines the scale is granted the status of, legal for trade scale and can be used for commercial operations. In the end a legal for trade scale makes weight measurement very easy, precise and transparent for end users and customers. You can see a range of legal for trade scales at www.paylessscales.com.

About Author :

Lawrence has been in the weighing machines industry for the last 14 years. He has been interested in the penetration of digital scales across various market segments. He has participated in the wide adoption of digital scales such as floor scales by small, medium and large businesses. His special area of interest has been maximizing the value proposition of a digital scale. You can know more at www.paylessscales.com.

Selecting Hard Money Lender – Five Things You MUST Know

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Finding active hard money lenders may require some research, because they’re not nearly as obvious or numerous as conventional lenders. Many only lend money in their immediate geographic areas in order to be able personally visit properties before making loans. Check with mortgage brokers, because they often represent some hard money lenders. You can also find hard money loans through newspaper ads and on the Internet; but always verify lender credentials beforehand, as you should before working with any kind of professional mortgage lender. You’ve decided to get into rehabbing properties. A hard money loans seem to be your best option to fund these ventures. Here are a few ideas and questions to ask designed to help aid your search for a reputable hard money lender, broker, or referring source:

1. Hard Lender Experiences: Ask how long they’ve been in business. How many successful deals have they made? How many collective years of experience do all key people at the company have? Look for a hard money lender that has “direct hard loans lender” in their advertising. It’s a good sign.

2. Industry Connections: How many hard money lenders and investors does this company work with? Go with one who has several funding sources (Hedge funds, Mortgage pools, Private Equity Groups, etc.). The more connections they have to direct hard money lenders with ready cash, the faster – and better they’ll get the job done.

3. The Commercial Real Estate Market: How is the market in your area? The better the market’s doing, the lower your hard loan interest rates may be. If the market is slow you may end up paying much higher interest rate. Make sure you know the market in your area.

4. Brokers: The Company or referring source that helps you with your search for your hard money loan will have a lot of influence. Make sure they are competent. How? Ask someone who has dealt with hard loans before. Ask your lawyer. Do as much research as you think you’ll need. Hard money brokers will help you shop many investors and lenders to find a loan that works for you.

5. Direct Money Lender: Some hard wholesalers or direct lenders can fund your loan directly. Direct money lenders are a more direct way to get your loan underwritten and eliminate the use of a broker or referring source but, may have to start the application process all over again if you started with a broker. Either way, make sure you are working with a reputable company who has a proven record of success with hard lending.

Used Car Sales With Motor Finance Wizard – Car Sales

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Used Car Sales With MFW

Motor Finance Wizard specializes in used car sales and is currently operating in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria offering an extensive range of used cars to suit your needs. Not only does MFW focus on car sales, but they also specialise in providing motor vehicle finance solutions for people who may have found it difficult to obtain car financing. Motor Finance Wizard opened its first dealership in 2001 and has since sold and leased more than 19,000 vehicles to date, making us one of the nations largest used car dealerships in Australia. Motor Finance Wizard has used car dealerships and offer the best used car sales available in the Queensland, Victoria, and NSW area. MFW has thrived while other used car dealerships have struggled due in large part to their customer service and ability to get almost anyone in a used car of their choice. Their mission is to provide all Australians with the opportunity to own a motor vehicle, regardless of their financial situation.

Motor Vehicle Finance Through MFW

Motor Finance Wizard will assist those in need of used cars and have bad credit history in finding the vehicle they need. MFW operates used car dealerships that specialise in providing motor vehicle finance solutions on MFW used cars to customers who do not meet the strict lending criteria of mainstream lenders. This model allows customers to acquire car financing and a quality used cars from the same point of sale location.

Traditionally in Australia the sale of a motor vehicle has been a separate transaction to the car financing, involving two different parties; the car dealership and an independent finance company. MFW, through its in-house finance provider KWIK Finance, provides motor vehicle finance for customers exclusively to MFW used car dealerships for the full term of the Lease.

Safeguards for Handling of Funds Using Bank Deposit Bags

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Since the very early Romans learned to trade goods with gold as well as silver as money, cash pouches were certain to be about. To stash or hide money is, of course, their main purpose. Cash bags have actually come a long way, as do our contemporary banks. Today, it’s insufficient to place those large sums of cash in any sort of bag. You require a bank deposit bag with its own keying code for tinker resistance. Here’s why using one is advantageous:

Organized
Even if you’re not taking the money to the bank, you can just make use of the cash bag to organize crisp bills to your very last dollar. You can easily stash your $1,000 bills in one edge and the $100 bills on the other, which makes identification and also calculating easier to handle.

Protection
Cash bags offer you the safety you require just like a bank vault. Although it isn’t made from the sturdiest steel known to man or contains hi-tech pass codes for it to open, all of your valuables are maintained secured in one location– which makes it obtainable just to you. Paper envelopes in which to stash your funds dont cut it; they get effortlessly soaked and ruined, as well as rips by itself when totally wet. A cash bag is resistant to water damage.

Benefit
A common bank deposit bag would have tags or labels attached to them, which makes money identification for you efficient. You could write crucial info on the labels like the bank name to which the cash is being transferred and your personal info, as well. You could even organize funds according to color schemes (i.e. green bags for $1000 bills, yellow bags for $100 and a real zip-on sack for coins).

Easy to bring
The wonderful thing about bank deposit bags is that they have comfy handles which makes it simpler for you to carry them. No matter precisely how heavy the load is, the handle will not snap, completely stitched as it is to the bag. This comes in handy if you must exchange all those hefty coins into bills.

Space
Bank money bags may roomy enough to accommodate as numerous bills as possible. They’re obtainable in all shapes and also sizes, which implies you could stash your bills, coins, jewelry, and also other items you need to take to the bank for safekeeping. Go to ehow.com for even more information.

Why Small Business Needs Accounting

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According to the NY Times, one of the ten reasons small businesses fail is due to improper or lack of accounting. Corporations spend a significant amount of money and hire accountants to report on the status of the company and maintain day to day operations. Yet, many small businesses end up failing to maintain proper accounting.

Accounting Helps with Operating Your Business
Proper Accounting helps pay employees and vendors; helps with customer invoicing, helps post payments; tracks your business assets and liabilities, and most importantly, it calculates any profits and losses. Small businesses cannot operate if they can not pay their employees or ignore vendors bills and continue receiving materials for their products. Often, those functions are ignored by small businesses due to lack of time thus resulting to work stoppages.

Accounting Provides Feedback
At the end of every period, may it be monthly or yearly, as small business owners, you have some idea of how you performed and accounting provides you the validation you need. It will tell you if you made a profit or loss. If you happen to have a loss, it will determine where your biggest expenses are coming from and if you did make a profit and still left with a small cash balance, it will probably tell you which customers havent paid and which customers are now delinquent. Small businesses fail when what they think is not true and this is the most important reason why small businesses need accounting.

Accounting Helps Comply With Legal and Contractual Obligations
The IRS, other government agencies, and banking covenants require businesses to provide a detailed accounting of their revenue and expenses. Depending on the size and entity type, it also requires you to have a balance sheet or listing of assets, liabilities, and equity. Accounting provides you with that information easily. It provides business owners the right amount of withholding, deductions, and back-up just incase they get audited.

Accounting Provides Non-Financial Insights
Many small businesses fail to realize that accounting is not just financial information. It has information on timing, customer information, employee information, and other information that may not necessarily be part of your financials. For example. a key non-financial trend that small business could pay attention to is their customer demographics, you can identify what your customers age, location, and how they order products and services and you can zone in on advertising to that demographics thus increasing revenue and could lead to increased profit. Another, key non-financial trend small business can pay attention to is monthly sales figures, when a small business realize that a continuous trend of slow monthly per year. A small business could either ramp-up advertising 30 days before as anticipation of the slow month or they could plan a family vacation.

Entrepreneurs are the Key Driver Drives Castilla-La Mancha to Economic Recovery

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Ensures that the Government of Castilla-La Mancha and CECAM “working in the same direction, which is to create jobs and wealth for our region”

Spain, May 25, 2013 – The Minister of Employment and Economy Regional Executive, Home Carmen said that “entrepreneurs are the engine of economic recovery and a source of employment in Castilla-La Mancha, in collaboration with the government led by Maria Dolores Cospedal “.

Home This was said during a meeting with the president of the Confederation of Employers of Castilla-La Mancha (CECAM), in which we have analyzed the measures it has put in place the regional government to accelerate economic recovery and employment.

In this regard, he indicated that the regional government “is very clear that the revitalization of the productive and commitment to innovation and modernization passes businessmen and entrepreneurs of Castilla-La Mancha, because without them there is no business, and without businesses can not create jobs. ”

The Minister also referred to the latest economic indicators, which he described as “encouraging” Thus, stressed the sale of new vehicles in Castilla-La Mancha in the last month, which has increased by 23.6 percent, compared to 10.8 percent of the national average, the Business Confidence Index from 6.5 in Castilla-La Mancha against the national average of 3.6, or increasing the number of self in the last month 0.31 percent.

Home has expressed its belief that “the measures taken by the government of Castilla-La Mancha are beginning to bear fruit, something that is being endorsed by economic data that reflect a slight change of trend”

In this regard, he said that “despite the difficulties, we were able to ensure basic social services, meet the deficit target and, above all, to show that the measures we have taken were correct.”

As an example, he recalled that “only the Ministry of Employment and the Economy will invest 95 million euros in 2013 to encourage entrepreneurship and to create jobs through measures such as the Development Plan for the Recruitment, Development Plan of Self-employment agreements with financial institutions, the Investment Plan and Employment Creation or the Internationalization Plan of Castilla-La Mancha, among other measures. ”

Finally, Casero wanted to highlight the important work CECAM with Nicholas Angel in the lead, to streamline and improve the business of Castilla-La Mancha. “The Government of Castilla-La Mancha and CECAM working in the same direction, which is to create jobs and wealth for our region,” he concluded.

Press Contact: Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Media Relations Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Address: Avda Ireland No 14 512-212-1139

Gmac Loan Modification Calculator Find Out Your New Monthly Payment

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If you need a GMAC loan modification, you might want to check out a website and see if you qualify. They have a loan modification calculator that will tell you if you qualify and what your new payment would be once approved.

This calculator is based off Obama’s HAM program. It caps your monthly mortgage payment at 31% of your net monthly income. This is accomplished by lowering your interest rate to as low as 2%, extending the terms of your loan and reducing your principal balance. It goes in this order, so usually the payment cap is met before a reduction of principal is necessary.

This is an amazing program for those who qualify. The problem is, less than 300,000 homeowners have received a loan modification under these guidelines out of the millions and millions of homeowners who are in desperate need of one.

Some homeowners call the lenders themselves and some of them even received notices in the mail from their lender saying they were qualified. Once they get on the phone, they soon realize they are denied and are left scratching their heads!

The main reason for this is usually the financial ratios homeowners are giving their lender. You can’t just call your lender without working out your financials first! They will ask you a series of questions and if you do not anwer them correctly, you will be denied for sure. You cannot make too much money or too little either. Your income to expenses have to be just right to get approved for this plan.

Don’t worry, there is help available. Try out the calculator and see if you qualify and what your payment will be. If you want help to get that payment, just fill out the form for a free consultation if you’d like. They will be able to give you a free consultation and tell you how they can help you get approved. There are no upfront fees.

To see if you qualify for a GMAC loan modification, just visit the following links.